A personality disorder is defined as “a deeply ingrained and maladaptive pattern of behavior of a specified kind, typically manifest by the time one reaches adolescence and causing long-term difficulties in personal relationships or in functioning in society.” According to the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition), a personality disorder is “an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the culture of the individual who exhibits it.” The National Institute of Mental Health reports that in a 12 month prevalence, 9.1% of US Adults will experience a personality disorder.
Personality Disorders are separated into three categories: Suspicious personality disorders, Emotional and Impulsive personality disorders, and Anxious personality disorders.
Suspicious Personality Disorders and Characteristics
- Paranoid: Marked inability to trust others due to severe suspicion. Usually their reasons for distrusting others have no real foundation. The justifications are elaborate and imaginative. Though usually self-perceived, paranoid personality disorder can be the result of intense childhood trauma.
- Schizotypal: Schizophrenia is least often the commonly painted picture of it. Voices inside the head making demands is a rare and extreme form of schizo-related disorders. A schizotypal individual is impaired in their ability to read other’s emotions, making relationships a challenge. Divergent from the norm, schizotypal personality disorder results in some bizarre behavioral patterns.
- Antisocial: Lacking in empathy, sympathy, and compassion, antisocial personality disorder tends to result in behavioral demonstrations such as manipulation, violation, exploitation, humiliation, and all around inconsideration of another person.
Emotional and Impulsive Personality Disorders
- Borderline: Indicated by its name, borderline personality disorder is characterized by a constant flux of personality types. Deeply insecure and unsure of who one is, borderline will act out through behaviors and relationships while constantly changing who they are.
- Histrionic: Originating from “hysteria”, histrionic personality disorder is characterized by using dramatic or highly emotional behavior to attract attention.
- Narcissistic: Narcissistic personality disorder is often labeled as toxic. While characterized by behaviors similar to antisocial personality disorder, narcissism is rooted in debilitating insecurity.
Anxious Personality Disorders
- Avoidant: Feelings of inadequacy and deep fear of rejection drive avoidant personality disorder to excessive shyness or avoiding social situations and relationships.
- Dependent: Also known as codependency, dependent personality disorder is characterized by a problematic dependence on others.
- Obsessive Compulsive: OCD is characterized by a compulsive need and obsessive preoccupation with self imposed rules usually having to do with control.
Personality Disorders and Substance Abuse
A personality disorder diagnosis causes a 50% or more chance of a developing substance use disorder. Over 20% of alcohol use disorder diagnosis is co-occurring with obsessive compulsive disorder. 21% of individuals abusing alcohol and cocaine were diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder.
Avalon By The Sea is one of California’s only treatment facility’s licensed to treat mental health and psychiatric issues as a primary diagnosis. Certified to treat both mental health and substance use disorders, Avalon provides excellent care for co-occurring and dual-diagnosis issues. For a confidential and professional assessment, call 1 (888) 958-7511 today.